Between the 14th -15th centuries, Eišiškių was formally a brick castle that defended Lithuania against enemies from eastern borders. In the 14th century chronicles, Eišiškių castle is mentioned as one of the oldest castles in Lithuania. Its shape is associated with a type of tower defence construction, widely known in the 13th century in the Volynė and Nemunas rivers  upper reaches. It is supposed that in the 14th century the castle once belonged to Sudimantas, the father of Grand Duke Vytautas wife Ona.

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