Eišiškės is one of the oldest settlements in Lithuania. Lithuanian Chronicle mentions that Eišiškės were founded by Samogitian Duke Mantvilas son Mikšys. In the 16th century Eišiškės were considered to be one of the most important towns in the Grand Duchy. There was the castle court here,  nobility Dietines ( liet. Seimeliai). The town had a church, a synagogue, a school, four streets, town hall and a tavern. Most of the inhabitants were Jews who continued to live in the town till  the Second World War.

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